Gulyakov Alexander Dmitrievich, Candidate of juridical sciences, associate professor, rector of Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), Comp_federalism@yandex.ru
Background. Being a place of intensive migrations and competition between states, the Center of Europe was not able to create federations before the bourgeois epoch. Feudalism with its group prejudices, lack of material resources and communications did not give enough prerequisites. Only in mountainous tiny Switzerland with its isolated communities protofederalization started in the middle ages and was developing during a few centuries. In Germany and Austria the preparation for federalism in 19-th and 20-th centuries covered a period of a few years. But this period was very important from the point of view of building a concrete model of federalism.
Matherials and methods. The article analyzes three cases of federative states formation in neighboring countries. The description is based upon common elements including prerequisites, reasons for the formation, the proto-federalization stage, the constitutional confirmation and establishment of federal government. Comparison is applied to clear up objective regularities of the formation of federative states and peculiarities in this process in concrete countries.
Results. We see differences in the federative evolution and in its results. Switzerland slowly went a long way to a rather decentralized federative state with collective executive power. Germany became a union of monarchies under domination of Prussia with formally centralized power. Austria as the heart of the former multinational empire under international pressure and class struggle was characterized by supercentralization.
Conclusions. It’s necessary to continue the comparative research covering new objects. Federative states of other continents and different historical epochs may give additional data about difficulties and achievements of federalism. Only through the history of state and law based upon comparative studies we may come to conclusions about the present and possibly the future federalism.
History of Federalism, Formation of Federative States, Central Europe, Federative State in Switzerland, Federative State in Germany and Austria, Federative State in Comparative Federalism
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